TES Data Tool
Glossary
Albedo (BOL.LAMBERT_ALBEDO)
Lambertian albedo, derived from visual bolometer.
See PROCESS.PDF, Section 3.0 for a description of the visible bolometer calibration algorithms.
Algor Risk (RAD.QUALITY:ALGOR_RISK)
A constraint for spectral data that has a low risk of algor phase inversions (RAD.QUALITY:ALGOR_RISK=0).
See QUALITY.TXT for a complete description of this quality issue.
Atmospherically Corrected Emissivity
Total emissivity is deconvolved using eight spectral components which represent surface, atmospheric dust, atmospheric ice, and a thermal blackbody. The atmospherically corrected emissivity is calculated by removing the atmospheric dust and ice components from the total emissivity. The correction is only applied to single scan observations over channels 9-35 and 65-100.
See Surface Endmember Array entry for components and percentages, and BANDFIELD, 2002 for more information about the deconvolution.
Atmospheric Opacity (ATM.NADIR_OPACITY)
Atmospheric opacities are provided as scaling factors for four spectral shapes (STDSHAPES) that best fit the nadir radiance spectrum. The RMS residual between the observed and four endmember modeled spectra is also available, given in units of 1e-8 watts cm-2 steradian-1 wavenumber-1.
See ATM.FMT and PROCESS.PDF, Section 7.0 for more information.
    Aerosol dust opacity (ATM.NADIR_OPACITY[1])
    Aerosol water ice opacity (ATM.NADIR_OPACITY[2])
    CO2 hot bands opacity (ATM.NADIR_OPACITY[3])
    Reference surface emissivity (ATM.NADIR_OPACITY[4])
    Opacity RMS (ATM.NADIR_OPACITY_RESIDUAL)
TES Team scientists have rated the quality of the derived opacity results and provided a constraint to select only the best results (ATM.QUALITY:ATMOSPHERIC_OPACITY_RATING=0).
See QUALITY.TXT for more information.
Bolometric Temperature (BOL.BOLOMETRIC_BRIGHTNESS_TEMP)
Temperature observed by the thermal bolometer, assuming that the target is radiating as a blackbody; in units of K.
See PROCESS.PDF, Section 4.0 for a description of the thermal bolometer calibration algorithms.
Calibrated Bolometer (BOL.CALIBRATED_VISUAL_BOLOMETER)
Calibrated visual bolometer radiance; given in units of (watts cm-2 steradian-1). The visual bolometer operates at 0.3 - 2.7 microns.
See PROCESS.PDF, Section 3.0 for a description of the calibration algorithms.
Clear Atmosphere
TES Team scientists recommend the following constraints for query results of spectra with minimal atmospheric effects.
Note: do not use this constraint when requesting only bolometric results.
    ATM.QUALITY:ATMOSPHERIC_OPACITY_RATING 0 0
    ATM.NADIR_OPACITY[1] -0.03 0.2 (i.e. Dust Opacity)
    ATM.NADIR_OPACITY[2] -0.03 0.1 (i.e. Water Ice Opacity)
See ATM.FMT for more information.
Detector (*.DETECTOR_NUMBER)
The number of the spectrometer detector that made the observation. Detectors are numbered from 1 to 6.
Detector Mask (OBS.DETECTOR_MASK)
A spatial detector mask was applied to every TES spectral observation prior to transmission to Earth. There are eight possible combinations [0-7] of co-adding the spectra from the six detectors, for example: mask 1 = all detectors co-added into single spectrum; mask 7 = all detectors downlinked as separate spectra.
See DETMASK.TXT for more information.
Downwelling Flux
Atmospheric downwelling flux due to either CO2 (667 cm-1 band) or all atmospheric aerosols; given in watts cm-2.
See ATM.FMT and PROCESS.PDF, Section 7.0 for more information.
Emission Angle (GEO.EMISSION_ANGLE)
Angle between the spacecraft, the target point and the surface normal vector at the target. When TES is observing the surface directly below the spacecraft, the emission angle is close to 0 degrees.
Emissivity
Emissivity is calculated by dividing the TES calibrated radiance by a blackbody at the calculated target temperature for the observation.

There are 143 radiance channels at ~10 wavenumber spacing, and 256 radiance channels at ~5 wavenumber spacing. To restrict the returned spectral resolution, use commas to separate a list of individual channel numbers (1,2,....,n) and/or define a range of channel numbers (min:max). Example = 6,50:100,125,130:143

If SCAN_LENGTH is not constrained, then all available wavelength modes (singles and/or doubles) will be returned in the results; in this case, the value of radiance channels [144:256] will be NULL for single mode data.
See Wavelength entry for more information.
Emissivity Indexes and Ratios
Emissivity band depths indexes and ratios are calculated as follows (all bands given in cm-1):
    Hematite Index (PCT.HEM_INDEX) - emissivity band ratio = [360-391]/[286-296+466-476]
    LongWave Depth Index (PCT.LW_DEPTH) - emissivity at long wavelengths 350-450
    ShortWave Depth Index (PCT.SW_DEPTH) - emissivity at long wavelengths 1354-1397
    LongWave Ratio (PCT.LW_RATIO) - emissivity band ratio = [425-455]/[380-390+465-475]
    450 & 530 Index - not currently available
See BANDFIELD, 2003 for more information.
Ephemeris Time (POS.EPHEMERIS_TIME)
The time at the beginning of the observation, given in seconds since 12:00 a.m. January 1, 2000. The TES mapping mission covers the ET range -26495432 and 214295844.
High Gain Antenna & Solar Panel Motion (RAD.QUALITY)
The TES Team scientists have noted that the motions of either the antenna or the panels induce microphonics which adversely affect the quality of the observed spectra. Use this constraint to obtain spectral data collected at a time when the High Gain Antenna was not moving (RAD.QUALITY:HGA_MOTION=1) or when the Solar Panels were not moving (RAD.QUALITY:SOLAR_PANEL_MOTION=1).
See QUALITY.TXT for a complete description of this quality issue.
Highest BOLOMETRIC Quality
TES Team scientists recommend the following constraints so that query results only contain the highest quality bolometric data:
    BOL.QUALITY:BOLOMETRIC_INERTIA_RATING 0 1
    BOL.QUALITY:BOLOMETER_LAMP_ANOMALY 0 0
See QUALITY.TXT and BOL.FMT for more information on these fields.
Highest SPECTRAL Quality
TES Team scientists recommend the following constraints so that query results only contain the highest quality spectral data:
    RAD.QUALITY:MAJOR_PHASE_INVERSION 0 0
    RAD.QUALITY:ALGOR_RISK 0 0
    OBS.DETECTOR_MASK 7 7
    RAD.TARGET_TEMPERATURE 250 300
    OBS.IMC_COUNT 0 0
See QUALITY.TXT, PROCESS.PDF, Section 8.0, and DETMASK.TXT for more information on these fields
ICK (OBS.ICK)
The number of two-second intervals that have elapsed since the start of the orbit. The two-second interval is the smallest time unit defined by the TES instrument and equals the time to complete a single length scan. There are approximately 3530 icks per TES orbit.
IMC Status (OBS.IMC_COUNT)
TES was originally designed to improve the quality of the collected spectra by mechanically compensating for the MGS orbital motion using Image Motion Compensation (IMC); however, due to issues during aerobraking, the MGS orbit was modified and the TES IMC was infrequently used. The IMC_COUNT can be used to constrain data based on the use of the IMC:
    IMC Off selects only spectral data where OBS.IMC_COUNT = 0
    IMC On selects only spectral data where OBS.IMC_COUNT > 1
Incidence Angle (GEO.INCIDENCE_ANGLE)
Angle between the sun, the target point, and the surface normal vector at the target.
TES day observations have an incidence angle between 0 and 90 degrees; TES night observations have an incidence angle between 90 and 180 degrees.
IRTM
TES calibrated radiances are convolved to Viking IRTM band resolution for the five primary data channels. Original IRTM channels, with wavelength ranges, are generated from the TES (double scan) channels as follows:
    T7 (6.1 - 8.3 um) = (184 - 284)
    T9 (8.3 - 9.8 um) = (154 - 234)
    T11 (9.8 - 12.5 um) = (118 - 186)
    T20 (17.7 - 30.0 um) = (36 - 90)
    T15* (14.56 - 15.41 um) = (92 - 104)
Latitude (GEO.LATITUDE)
Areocentric latitude of target point; given in degrees.
All derived surface geometry values are computed on the IAU-1994 Mars ellipsoid.
Local Time (GEO.LOCAL_TIME)
Local time at target, in decimal Martian hours. The Martian day is divided into 24 equal hours.
Longitude (GEO.LONGITUDE)
Originally, TES data was released with Areocentric WEST longitude coordinates of observed point, based on the IAU-1994 Mars ellipsoid. TES longitudes are now also available in Areocentric EAST coordinates, based on the IAU-2000 Mars ellipsoid. All longitudes are given in degrees.

To translate between IAU-1994 (west) and IAU-2000 (east) coordinate systems:
    EAST_LONGITUDE = 360 - WEST_LONGITUDE + 0.271
    with the appropriate adjustments made at the 0/360 boundary.
MGS Altitude (GEO.SPACECRAFT_ALTITUDE)
Distance in KM from the spacecraft to the sub-spacecraft point on the planet surface.
Phase Inversion (RAD.QUALITY:MAJOR_PHASE_INVERSION)
A constraint for spectral data that does not contain major phase inversion (RAD.QUALITY:MAJOR_PHASE_INVERSION=0).
See QUALITY.TXT for a complete description of this quality issue.
Pointing Angle (OBS.MIRROR_POINTING_ANGLE)
The angle the TES scanning mirror was pointing during the observation, measured in degrees away from nadir. Mirror angles between -90 and +65 view Mars and space.
Observation Type (OBS.OBSERVATION_TYPE)
A coarse data constraint based on the following observation criteria:
    Surface = OBS.OBSERVATION_TYPE D D
    Warm Surface = OBS.OBSERVATION_TYPE D D & RAD.TARGET_TEMPERATURE 250 300
    Limb = OBS.OBSERVATION_TYPE L L
    EPF = OBS.OBSERVATION_CLASSIFICATION:{INTENDED_TARGET 1 1 & TES_SEQUENCE 6 6}
Orbit/Ock (OBS.ORBIT_COUNTER_KEEPER)
Sequential count of the number of orbital revolutions since orbit insertion; unique throughout the entire MGS mission. This number is identical to the MGS project orbit number up until the beginning of the Mapping Phase (ock=1684) when the MGS Project reset its orbit count to 1. For your convenience, an approximate orbit timetable is available here.
Radiance (RAD.CALIBRATED_RADIANCE)
Calibrated spectral radiance; given in units of (watts cm-2 steradian-1 wavenumber-1).
See PROCESS.PDF, Section 2.0 for a description of the calibration algorithms.

There are 143 radiance channels at ~10 wavenumber spacing, and 256 radiance channels at ~5 wavenumber spacing. To restrict the returned spectral resolution, use commas to separate a list of individual channel numbers (1,2,....,n) and/or define a range of channel numbers (min:max). Example = 6,50:100,125,130:143

If SCAN_LENGTH is not constrained, then all available wavelength modes (singles and/or doubles) will be returned in the results; in this case, the value of radiance channels [144:256] will be NULL for single mode data.
See Wavelength entry for more information.
SCLK (*.SPACECRAFT_CLOCK_START_COUNT)
The value of the spacecraft clock at the beginning of the observation, given in seconds since 12:00 a.m. January 1, 1980. The TES mapping mission covers the SCLK range 604699726 and 845491040.
Spectral Mask (RAD.SPECTRAL_MASK)
A spectral mask was applied to every TES spectral observation prior to transmission to Earth. There are 21 masks defined which either select, reject, or average the data from each spectral sample; mask 00 selects all spectral samples.
See SPECTMASK.TXT for more information.
Solar Longitude (Ls) (GEO.SOLAR_LONGITUDE)
Planetocentric longitude of the sun, used to measure the Martian seasons:
    0 = start of Northern spring/Southern autumn
    90 = start of Northern summer/Southern winter
    180 = start of Northern autumn/Southern spring
    270 = start of Northern winter/Southern summer
Surface Endmember Array
Results from Bandfield's atmospheric correction routine available as an array of the eight percentage concentrations and the RMS error. In order, the array contains:
    PCT.PERC_BAS1 - concentration of Acidalia Type surface endmember (andesite)
    PCT.PERC_BAS2 - concentration of Syrtis Type surface endmember (basalt)
    PCT.PERC_HEM - concentration of hematite endmember
    PCT.PERC_DUST1 - concentration of low CO2 dust endmember
    PCT.PERC_DUST2 - concentration of high CO2 dust endmember
    PCT.PERC_ICE1 - concentration of high latitude water ice cloud endmember
    PCT.PERC_ICE2 - concentration of low latitude water ice cloud endmember
    PCT.PERC_BB - concentration of blackbody endmember
    PCT.RMS_ERROR - RMS error between measure and modeled spectra
See BANDFIELD, 2002 for more information.
Surface Pressure (ATM.SURFACE_PRESSURE)
Atmospheric pressure at the surface of Mars, given in mbar x1000. It is calculated from the altitudes given by the MOLA 1/4 degree x 1/4 degree topographic map, the hydrostatic law assuming a 10 km scale height, and an adjustment for the seasonal CO2 sublimation cycle. Proper normalization is obtained by fitting the pressures observed by the Viking and Pathfinder landers.
See PROCESS.PDF, Section 7.0 for more information.
Target Temperature (RAD.TARGET_TEMPERATURE)
Derived temperature of the observed target; given in units of K.
See PROCESS.PDF, Section 5.0 for a description of the surface temperature algorithm.
Temperature Profile (ATM.NADIR_TEMPERATURE_PROFILE)
Array of atmospheric temperatures from nadir observations corresponding to 38 pressure levels (16.58152 to 0.00159 mbars), given in degrees-K x100. The NULL value (444.4) is used either when (a) the temperature retrieval fails, or (b) the pressure either exceeds the local surface pressure, or is less than 0.1 mbar.
See ATM.FMT and PROCESS.PDF, Section 7.0 for more information.

TES Team scientists have rated the quality of the pressure-temperature profile and provided a constraint to select only the best results (ATM.QUALITY:TEMPERATURE_PROFILE_RATING=0).
See QUALITY.TXT for more information.
Thermal Inertia (BOL.BOLOMETRIC_THERMAL_INERTIA)
Thermal inertia, derived from thermal bolometer; given in units of (J m-2 s-1/2 K-1). When selecting this field, consider applying the Highest BOLOMETRIC Quality constraint.
See PROCESS.PDF, Section 6.0 for a description of the thermal inertia algorithms.
Vanilla Software
Vanilla is a tool that treats PDS standard tables as a hierarchical database and allows simple queries across one or more tables. For TES specific example queries, see the Vanilla User Guide.
Wavelength (OBS.SCAN_LENGTH)
Wavelength of scan; for complete wavenumber tables, organized by detector and channel (see links): TES Team Scientists highly recommend defining a SCAN_LENGTH constraint if any Spectral Bands (Radiance, Emissivity, or Atmospherically Corrected Emissivity) are selected. Constraining SCAN_LENGTH by "None" has the effect of allowing both wavelength modes (single and/or double) to be returned when available, so it should only be used ...
    ... IF the query returns only TES bolometer data;
    ... or IF the query returns fields not derived from TES spectral data;
    ... or IF either SCAN_LENGTH is acceptable in the query results.
When the wavelength mode is unconstrained, consider adding SCAN_LENGTH (under Additional OBS Fields) to the Field Selection List for clarity during analysis.